As a result, the lasting effects of untreated cephalic deformities are not yet fully known. The lack of available data on the lasting effects of these conditions has led to some less than ideal outcomes. One result of untreated cephalic disorders, specifically brachycephaly, which is being studied in detail is sleep apnea. The deformations caused by brachycephaly and the resulting effects on muscle strength and palate formation can lead to a higher incidence of sleep apnea in adulthood. Apnea is a serious condition which, in severe cases, may require the use of oxygen support during sleep.